Addressing gender inequalities in curriculum and education : review of literature and promising practices to inform education reform initiatives in Thailand


Author: Levtov, Ruti  ; 
Document Date: 2014/01/01
Document Type: Working Paper (Numbered Series)
Report Number: 92763
Volume No: 1
Country: Thailand ; 
Disclosure Date: 2014/11/26
Doc Name: Addressing gender inequalities in curriculum and education : review of literature and promising practices to inform education reform initiatives in Thailand
Keywords: academic achievement, academic outcomes, access to education, Achieving gender equality, active learning, active learning methods, adolescents, adults, attendance at school, Basic Education, Basic Education project, care centers, citizenship education, classroom, Classroom Assistants, classroom experiences, classroom management, classroom practice, classrooms, community participation, Comparative Education, continuing education, critical thinking, curricula, Curriculum, curriculum developers, curriculum development, day care, disadvantaged children, disadvantaged groups, discriminatory attitudes, distance learning, district education, early childhood, early childhood education, education activities, Education for All, education for girls, education management, education of children, education officials, education programs, Education Reform, education sector, education services, education statistics, education systems, educational environments, educational interventions, educational outcomes, Educational Personnel, educational quality, educators, empowerment of girls, enrollment, enrolment rates, equal access, Equal Opportunities, equal treatment, ethnic minority, ethnic minority girls, exam, Exam performance, exams, experienced teachers, female achievers, female students, female teachers, formal education, formal education system, Friendly Schools, gender analysis, gender awareness, Gender Bias, gender differences, Gender differentials, gender discrimination, gender equality, gender equality in education, gender equity, Gender Imbalance, Gender Inequalities, Gender inequality, gender issues, gender parity, gender stereotypes, gender-sensitive, gender_equality, girls, Girls Education, girls in school, head teacher, head teachers, Health Education, higher education, home economics, human rights, human rights education, inclusive learning, inclusive learning environments, interventions, leadership, learners, learning, learning environment, learning environments, learning materials, lesson plans, levels of education, lower secondary level, manuals, middle schools, National curriculum, national education, national education policy, national textbook, nutrition, opportunities for teachers, primary education, primary level, primary school, Primary Schooling, primary schools, promoting gender equity, public primary schools, public schools, public secondary schools, publishers, Quality Assurance, Quality Education, radio, refugee, refugee schools, Repetition rates, Reproductive Health, Reproductive Health Education, Resource Center, school administration, school administrators, school attendance, school building, school climate, school context, school curriculum, school dropout, school experiences, school infrastructure, school inspectors, school learning, school level, school libraries, school management, school officials, school personnel, school policies, School Quality, school staff, school system, school violence, schooling, schools, secondary education, secondary school, secondary schools, service training, street children, student achievement, student learning, student learning outcomes, student outcomes, student teachers, Supplementary Materials, teacher education, teacher educators, teacher manuals, teacher training, teacher training colleges, teacher training institutions, teacher training programs, teacher workshops, teachers, teaching, teaching methodologies, teaching methods, teaching techniques, textbook, textbook development, textbooks, trainees, training for teachers, training programs, violence against girls, violence against women, violence in schools, violent conflict, violent conflict resolution, vocational guidance, Women Educationalists, women in education, women teachers, working children, young people, youth
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Language: English
Region: East Asia and Pacific ; 
Rep Title: Addressing gender inequalities in curriculum and education : review of literature and promising practices to inform education reform initiatives in Thailand
Topics: Gender ; Social Protections and Labor ; Education
SubTopics: Primary Education ; Tertiary Education ; Education For All ; Disability ; Gender and Development
Unit Owning: Gender – CCSA – IFC (GCGDR)
Collection Title: Women’s voice, agency, and participation research series ; no. 9


In Thailand and worldwide, despite increases in educational enrollment, rigid gender norms dictating appropriate roles and behaviors contribute to the persistence of the gender inequalities. Since education systems are embedded in the broader social context, they reflect the inequalities that exist in society. The structure and content of schooling, textbooks, curricular choices, sex distribution of teachers and administrators, teacher attitudes and behaviors, classroom and discipline practices, and the presence of violence, reflect discriminatory and harmful social norms about the appropriate roles and opportunities for boys and girls (Connell, 1996, 2000, 2010). At the same time, schools have enormous potential to effect social change, transform gender relations, expanding the range of possibilities for both boys and girls (UNGEI, 2012a). This report provides a brief review of the literature and of interventions to promote gender equity through education in several specific areas: textbooks and curriculum; teacher distribution, attitudes, and behaviors; and school violence and discipline. And the report looks at holistic interventions that address multiple dimensions. This review also gives an overview of important steps for assessing gender issues in the educational system, emphasizes the need for rigorous interventions that measure a broad range of outcomes, provides recommendations for policy and programming, and highlights tools and resources.